Preliminary studies suggest that visinin-like protein 1 (VILIP-1) may be useful as a biomarker of neuronal injury in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. VILIP-1 is one of a class of neuronal calcium sensor proteins regulating calcium ion homeostasis. It has been shown to affect intracellular neuronal signalling involved in synaptic plasticity, and may be associated with calcium-mediated neuronal injury. Thus, VILIP-1 provides a link between calcium-mediated neurotoxicity and pathological changes in AD (Groblewska et al. J Alzheimers Dis 2015;47:17-32).