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The overlooked role of T cells in the antiviral response


Recent reports on the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection have largely focussed on B cells, with particular emphasis placed on antibody testing. An antibody response can typically be detected within 15-30 days of the onset of COVID-19 symptoms but concerns have been raised about the persistence of antibodies. A U.K. study reported a rapid decline in antibody titres, with the level of neutralizing antibodies in some patients approaching baseline within two months of disease onset (Seow et al. medRxiv preprint; free download at This has raised concerns about whether a COVID-19 vaccine would confer long-lasting immunity.

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Neurofilament-light – Update from EAN


The European Academy of Neurology (EAN) annual congress included new research on neurofilament-light (NfL), an indicator of neuroaxonal damage and one of the more promising biomarkers in multiple sclerosis and other neurodegenerative conditions. Several recent publications have also presented interesting findings that suggest a role for NfL in MS diagnosis, prognosis and treatment selection. Read More

Update on B cells in MS pathophysiology



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In the past few years, considerable attention has focussed on the role of B cells in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis, in large part because of the success of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (e.g. rituximab, ocrelizumab) in reducing clinical and radiological disease activity. A novel agent, ofatumumab, is expected soon and other agents (e.g. ublituximab) are in development. Read More